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Putnam handled publicity for the school that primarily taught instrument flying using Link Trainers. In , Earhart joined Purdue University as a visiting faculty member to counsel women on careers and as a technical advisor to its Department of Aeronautics.
With financing from Purdue, [Note 17] in July , a Lockheed Electra 10E was built at Lockheed Aircraft Company to her specifications, which included extensive modifications to the fuselage to incorporate many additional fuel tanks.
The plane was built at Lockheed's Burbank, California plant, and after delivery it was hangared at Mantz's United Air Services, which was just across the airfield from the Lockheed plant.
Although the Electra was publicized as a "flying laboratory", little useful science was planned and the flight was arranged around Earhart's intention to circumnavigate the globe along with gathering raw material and public attention for her next book.
Through contacts in the Los Angeles aviation community, Fred Noonan was subsequently chosen as a second navigator because there were significant additional factors that had to be dealt with while using celestial navigation for aircraft.
Noonan had recently left Pan Am , where he established most of the company's China Clipper seaplane routes across the Pacific. Noonan had also been responsible for training Pan American's navigators for the route between San Francisco and Manila.
In addition to Earhart and Noonan, Harry Manning and Mantz who was acting as Earhart's technical advisor were on board.
Due to lubrication and galling problems with the propeller hubs' variable pitch mechanisms, the aircraft needed servicing in Hawaii.
During the takeoff run, there was an uncontrolled ground-loop , the forward landing gear collapsed, both propellers hit the ground, the plane skidded on its belly, and a portion of the runway was damaged.
Some witnesses at Luke Field, including the Associated Press journalist, said they saw a tire blow. Some sources, including Mantz, cited pilot error.
With the aircraft severely damaged, the flight was called off and the aircraft was shipped by sea to the Lockheed Burbank facility for repairs.
While the Electra was being repaired Earhart and Putnam secured additional funds and prepared for a second attempt. This time flying west to east, the second attempt began with an unpublicized flight from Oakland to Miami , Florida, and after arriving there Earhart publicly announced her plans to circumnavigate the globe.
The flight's opposite direction was partly the result of changes in global wind and weather patterns along the planned route since the earlier attempt.
On this second flight, Fred Noonan was Earhart's only crew member. The aircraft departed Lae with about gallons of gasoline.
One of the recommended schedules was: Earhart used part of the above schedule for the Oakland to Honolulu leg of the first world flight attempt.
The flight from Oakland to Honolulu took 16 hours. During the flight, Noonan may have been able to do some celestial navigation to determine his position.
The Electra had radio equipment for both communication and navigation, but details about that equipment are not clear.
The Electra failed to establish two-way radio communications with Itasca and failed to radiolocate Itasca. Many explanations have been proposed for those failures.
The plane had a modified Western Electric model 13C transmitter. The plane had a modified Western Electric model 20B receiver.
Ordinarily, the receiver covered four frequency bands: The receiver's band selector also selects which antenna input is used; the first two bands use the low frequency antenna, and the last two bands select the high frequency antenna.
It is unknown whether the model 20B receiver had a beat frequency oscillator that would enable the detection of continuous wave transmissions such as Morse code and radiolocation beacons.
Manning, who was on the first world flight attempt but not the second, was skilled at Morse and had acquired an FCC aircraft radiotelegraph license for 15 words per minute in March , just prior to the start of the first flight.
A separate automatic radio direction finder receiver, a prototype Hooven Radio Compass,  had been installed in the plane in October , but that receiver was removed before the flight to save weight.
The loop antenna is visible above the cockpit on Earhart's plane. Whichever receiver was used, there are pictures of Earhart's radio direction finder loop antenna and its 5-band Bendix coupling unit.
If the RDF equipment was not suitable for that frequency, then attempting such a fix would be operator error and fruitless. The intention is to have the ordinary receive antenna connected to the coupler's antenna input; from there, it is passed on to the receiver.
In the RDFA design, the coupler must be powered on for that design function to work. There were problems with the RDF equipment during the world flight.
The antennas and their connections on the Electra are not certain. It is not certain, but it is likely that the dorsal antenna was only connected to the transmitter i.
Its task was to communicate with Earhart's Electra and guide them to the island once they arrived in the vicinity. Through a series of misunderstandings or errors the details of which are still controversial , the final approach to Howland Island using radio navigation was not successful.
Fred Noonan had earlier written about problems affecting the accuracy of radio direction finding in navigation.
In theory, the plane could listen for the signal while rotating its loop antenna. A sharp minimum indicates the direction of the RDF beacon.
The Electra's RDF equipment had failed due to a blown fuse during an earlier leg flying to Darwin; the fuse was replaced.
Earhart was also unable to determine a minimum during an RDF test at Lae. When operated above their design frequency, loop antennas lose their directionality.
The equipment originally used a long trailing wire antenna. The antenna was bulky and heavy, so the trailing wire antenna was removed to save weight.
If nothing else had been done, the plane would have been unable to transmit an RDF signal that Itasca could use. Some sources have noted Earhart's apparent lack of understanding of her direction-finding system, which had been fitted to the aircraft just prior to the flight.
The system was equipped with a new receiver from Bendix that operated on five wavelength "bands", marked 1 to 5. The loop antenna was equipped with a tuneable loading coil that changed the effective length of the antenna to allow it to work efficiently at different wavelengths.
The tuner on the antenna was also marked with five settings, 1 to 5, but, critically, these were not the same frequency bands as the corresponding bands on the radio.
The two were close enough for settings 1, 2 and 3, but the higher frequency settings, 4 and 5, were entirely different. The upper bands 4 and 5 could not be used for direction finding.
A card displaying the band settings of the antenna was mounted so it was not visible. Gurr explained that higher frequency bands would offer better accuracy and longer range.
Motion picture evidence from Lae suggests that an antenna mounted underneath the fuselage may have been torn off from the fuel-heavy Electra during taxi or takeoff from Lae's turf runway, though no antenna was reported found at Lae.
Don Dwiggins, in his biography of Paul Mantz who assisted Earhart and Noonan in their flight planning , noted that the aviators had cut off their long-wire antenna, due to the annoyance of having to crank it back into the aircraft after each use.
During Earhart and Noonan's approach to Howland Island, the Itasca received strong and clear voice transmissions from Earhart identifying as KHAQQ but she apparently was unable to hear voice transmissions from the ship.
Signals from the ship would also be used for direction finding, implying that the aircraft's direction finder was also not functional.
The first calls, routine reports stating the weather as cloudy and overcast, were received at 2: These calls were broken up by static, but at this point the aircraft would still be a long distance from Howland.
Earhart began whistling into the microphone to provide a continual signal for them to home in on. Another Itasca radio log position 2 at 7: This transmission was reported by the Itasca as the loudest possible signal, indicating Earhart and Noonan were in the immediate area.
They couldn't send voice at the frequency she asked for, so Morse code signals were sent instead. Earhart acknowledged receiving these but said she was unable to determine their direction.
In her last known transmission at 8: We will repeat this message. We will repeat this on kilocycles. The Itasca used her oil-fired boilers to generate smoke for a period of time but the fliers apparently did not see it.
The many scattered clouds in the area around Howland Island have also been cited as a problem: Whether any post-loss radio signals were received from Earhart and Noonan remains unclear.
If transmissions were received from the Electra, most if not all were weak and hopelessly garbled. The last voice transmission received on Howland Island from Earhart indicated she and Noonan were flying along a line of position running N—S on — degrees which Noonan would have calculated and drawn on a chart as passing through Howland.
Operators across the Pacific and the United States may have heard signals from the downed Electra but these were unintelligible or weak.
Some of these reports of transmissions were later determined to be hoaxes but others were deemed authentic. All of these added to the confusion and doubtfulness of the authenticity of the reports.
Beginning approximately one hour after Earhart's last recorded message, the USCGC Itasca undertook an ultimately unsuccessful search north and west of Howland Island based on initial assumptions about transmissions from the aircraft.
The United States Navy soon joined the search and over a period of about three days sent available resources to the search area in the vicinity of Howland Island.
The Itasca then searched the area to the immediate NE of the island, corresponding to the area, yet wider than the area searched to the NW.
Based on bearings of several supposed Earhart radio transmissions, some of the search efforts were directed to a specific position on a line of degrees approximately northwest from Howland Island without evidence of the flyers.
Later search efforts were directed to the Phoenix Islands south of Howland Island. The subsequent report on Gardner read: At the western end of the island a tramp steamer of about tons The lagoon at Gardner looked sufficiently deep and certainly large enough so that a seaplane or even an airboat could have landed or takenoff [ sic ] in any direction with little if any difficulty.
Given a chance, it is believed that Miss Earhart could have landed her aircraft in this lagoon and swum or waded ashore. Other Navy search efforts were again directed north, west and southwest of Howland Island, based on a possibility the Electra had ditched in the ocean, was afloat, or that the aviators were in an emergency raft.
The official search efforts lasted until July 19, Official reporting of the search effort was influenced by individuals wary about how their roles in looking for an American hero might be reported by the press.
Immediately after the end of the official search, Putnam financed a private search by local authorities of nearby Pacific islands and waters, concentrating on the Gilberts.
Back in the United States, Putnam acted to become the trustee of Earhart's estate so that he could pay for the searches and related bills. In probate court in Los Angeles, Putnam requested to have the " declared death in absentia " seven-year waiting period waived so that he could manage Earhart's finances.
As a result, Earhart was declared legally dead on January 5, There has been considerable speculation on what happened to Earhart and Noonan.
Most historians hold to the simple "crash and sink" theory, but a number of other possibilities have been proposed, including several conspiracy theories.
Some have suggested that Earhart and Noonan survived and landed elsewhere, but were either never found or killed, making en-route locations like Tarawa unlikely.
Many researchers believe that Earhart and Noonan ran out of fuel while searching for Howland Island, ditched at sea, and perished.
The plane would have carried enough fuel to reach Howland with some extra to spare. The extra fuel would cover some contingencies such as headwinds and searching for Howland.
The plane could fly a compass course toward Howland through the night. From that line, the plane could determine how much further it must travel before reaching a parallel sun line that ran through Howland.
With the radio contact, the plane should be able to use radio direction finding RDF to head directly for the Itasca and Howland. Unfortunately, the plane was not receiving a radio signal from Itasca , so it would be unable to determine an RDF bearing to the ship.
Presumably, the plane reached the parallel sun line and started searching for Howland on that line of position. Have been unable to reach you by radio.
We are flying at 1, feet. Navigator and aeronautical engineer Elgen Long and his wife Marie K. Long devoted 35 years of research to the "crash and sink" theory.
His research included the intricate radio transmission documentation. Safford came to the conclusion, "poor planning, worse execution".
Polhemous, the navigator on Ann Pellegreno 's flight that followed Earhart and Noonan's original flight path, studied navigational tables for July 2, , and thought Noonan may have miscalculated the "single line approach" intended to "hit" Howland.
David Jourdan, a former Navy submariner and ocean engineer specializing in deep-sea recoveries, has claimed any transmissions attributed to Gardner Island were false.
The search locations were derived from the line of position — broadcast by Earhart on July 2, In part, we remember her because she's our favorite missing person.
The Gardner Island hypothesis assumes that Earhart and Noonan, having not found Howland Island, would not waste time searching for Howland.
Instead, they would turn to the south and look for other islands. After the Navy ended its search, G. Putnam undertook a search in the Phoenix Group and other islands,  but nothing was found.
Maude visited Gardner with some potential settlers. A group walked all the way around the island, but did not find a plane or other evidence.
In December , laborers landed on the island and started constructing the settlement. The search found more bones, a bottle, a shoe, and a sextant box.
On September 23, , Gallagher radioed his superiors that he had found a "skeleton Gallagher stated the "Bones look more than four years old to me but there seems to be very slight chance that this may be remains of Amelia Earhardt.
On 4 April , Dr. Hoodless of the Central Medical School examined the bones, took measurements, and wrote a report. Hoodless also wrote "it may be definitely stated that the skeleton is that of a MALE.
In , an analysis of the measurement data by forensic anthropologists found instead that the skeleton had belonged to a "tall white female of northern European ancestry".
A study by American anthropologist Richard Jantz one of the authors of the TIGHAR report estimated the size of Earhart's skeleton based on photographs and reanalyzed the earlier data using modern forensic techniques.
Coast Guard personnel were involved in its construction and operation, but were mostly forbidden from leaving the small base or having contact with the Gilbertese colonists then on the island, and found no artifacts known to relate to Earhart.
In , a photograph taken in October of the reef at Nikumaroro after her disappearance was enhanced. According to the analysts who viewed it, "a blurry object sticking out of the water in the lower left corner of the black-and-white photo is consistent with a strut and wheel of a Lockheed Electra landing gear".
TIGHAR's research has produced a range of archaeological and anecdotal evidence supporting this hypothesis. Ric Gillespie, head of TIGHAR, claimed the found aluminum panel artifact has the same dimensions and rivet pattern as the one shown in the photo "to a high degree of certainty".
Further, a review of sonar data concluded it was most likely a coral ridge. In July , staff from the New England Air Museum notified TIGHAR that the unique rivet pattern of the aluminum panel precisely matched the top of the wing of a CB in the museum inventory; [ citation needed ] particularly significant since a CB crashed on a nearby island during World War II and villagers acknowledged bringing aluminum from that wreck to Gardner Island.
In October , original documents were discovered at the National Archives and Records Administration proving the sextant box -- found near the bones on Nikumaroro and alleged to belong to Fred Noonan -- was in the inventory of the USS Bushnell in , well after Earhart's disappearance.
Navy submarine tender outfitted as a hydrographic mapping vessel, visited Nikumaroro to survey the island and its lagoon in A few news articles have considered TIGHAR's theory, and generally consider it the most plausible of the "Earhart survived" theories, although not proven over crash-and-sink.
Another theory is that Earhart and Noonan were captured by Japanese forces, perhaps after somehow navigating to somewhere within the Japanese South Pacific Mandate.
In , CBS Correspondent Fred Goerner published a book claiming that Earhart and Noonan were captured and executed when their aircraft crashed on the island of Saipan , part of the Northern Mariana Islands archipelago.
No independent confirmation has ever emerged for any of these claims. A slightly different version of the Japanese capture hypothesis is not that the Japanese captured Earhart, but rather that they shot down her plane.
In , an archaeological dig at the site failed to turn up any bones. A recent proponent of this theory is Mike Campbell, who published the book Amelia Earhart: The Truth at Last in its favor.
Army Sergeant who found a suspicious gravesite near a former Japanese prison on Saipan. A number of Earhart's relatives have been convinced that the Japanese were somehow involved in Amelia's disappearance, citing unnamed witnesses including Japanese troops and Saipan natives.
In , a History Channel documentary, Amelia Earhart: The picture showed a Caucasian male on a dock who appeared to look like Noonan and a woman sitting on the dock but facing away from the camera, who was judged to have a physique and haircut resembling Earhart's.
The documentary theorizes that the photo was taken after Earhart and Noonan crashed at Mili Atoll. The documentary also said that physical evidence recovered from Mili matches pieces that could have fallen off an Electra during a crash or subsequent overland move to a barge.
The original source of the photo was a Japanese travel guide published in October , implying that the photograph was taken in or before, and thus would be unrelated to Earhart and Noonan's disappearance.
Additionally, the researcher who discovered the photo also identified the ship in the right of the photo as another ship called Koshu seized by Allied Japanese forces in World War I and not the Koshu Maru.
A common criticism of all versions of the Japanese capture hypothesis is that the Japanese-controlled Marshall Islands were considerably distant from Howland Island.
To reach and land there would have required Earhart and Noonan, though low on fuel, to change her northeast course as she neared Howland Island and fly hundreds of miles northwest, a feat "not supported by the basic rules of geography and navigation.
The unresolved circumstances of Earhart's disappearance, along with her fame, attracted a great body of other claims relating to her last flight.
Several unsupported theories have become known in popular culture. The World War II-era movie Flight for Freedom is a story of a fictional female aviator obviously inspired by Earhart who engages in a spying mission in the Pacific.
The movie helped further a myth that Earhart was spying on the Japanese in the Pacific at the request of the Franklin D. Army Intelligence had concluded that this rumor was groundless.
Jackie Cochran , another pioneering aviator and one of Earhart's friends, made a postwar search of numerous files in Japan and was convinced that the Japanese were not involved in Earhart's disappearance.
A rumor that claimed that Earhart had made propaganda radio broadcasts as one of the many women compelled to serve as Tokyo Rose was investigated closely by George Putnam.
According to several biographies of Earhart, Putnam investigated this rumor personally but after listening to many recordings of numerous Tokyo Roses, he did not recognize her voice among them.
The theory that Earhart may have turned back mid-flight has been posited. The soldiers recorded a rough position on a map, along with serial numbers seen on the wreckage.
While the map was located in the possession of another veteran in , subsequent searches of the area indicated failed to find a wreck.
While Angwin died in , David Billings, an Australian aircraft engineer, has continued to investigate his theory. These would be consistent with a Lockheed Electra 10E, such as that flown by Earhart, although they do not contain enough information to identify the wreck in question as NR In November , the National Geographic Channel aired episode two of the Undiscovered History series about a claim that Earhart survived the world flight, moved to New Jersey , changed her name, remarried and became Irene Craigmile Bolam.
The book's publisher, McGraw-Hill , withdrew the book from the market shortly after it was released and court records indicate that the company reached an out-of-court settlement with her.
Kevin Richlin, a professional criminal forensic expert hired by National Geographic , studied photographs of both women and cited many measurable facial differences between Earhart and Bolam.
Earhart was a widely known international celebrity during her lifetime. Her shyly charismatic appeal, independence, persistence, coolness under pressure, courage and goal-oriented career along with the circumstances of her disappearance at a comparatively early age have driven her lasting fame in popular culture.
Hundreds of articles and scores of books have been written about her life, which is often cited as a motivational tale, especially for girls.
Earhart is generally regarded as a feminist icon. Earhart's accomplishments in aviation inspired a generation of female aviators, including the more than 1, women pilots of the Women Airforce Service Pilots WASP who ferried military aircraft, towed gliders, flew target practice aircraft, and served as transport pilots during World War II.
The home where Earhart was born is now the Amelia Earhart Birthplace Museum and is maintained by The Ninety-Nines, an international group of female pilots of whom Earhart was the first elected president.
A small section of Earhart's Lockheed Electra starboard engine nacelle recovered in the aftermath of the Hawaii crash has been confirmed as authentic and is now regarded as a control piece that will help to authenticate possible future discoveries.
The evaluation of the scrap of metal was featured on an episode of History Detectives on Season 7 in Two notable memorial flights by female aviators subsequently followed Earhart's original circumnavigational route.
In , another commemorative flight retraced the route undertaken by Earhart in her August transcontinental record flight.
Carlene Mendieta flew an original Avro Avian, the same type that was used in In , Amelia Rose Earhart , a pilot and a reporter from Denver , Colorado , announced that she would be recreating the flight in the middle of in a single engine Pilatus PC NG.
She completed the flight without incident on July 11, Lloyd followed a route similar to the one taken by Earhart. Countless other tributes and memorials have been made in Amelia Earhart's name, including a tribute by U.
Earhart's life has spurred the imaginations of many writers and others; the following examples are given although many other mentions have also occurred in contemporary or current media:.
Earhart was a successful and heavily promoted writer who served as aviation editor for Cosmopolitan magazine from to She wrote magazine articles, newspaper columns, essays and published two books based upon her experiences as a flyer during her lifetime:.
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June Learn how and when to remove this template message. Aviation portal Biography portal Feminism portal. The original note has some slight variances in the header, use of commas and the salutation but is spelled correctly.
Roosevelt was not in favor of his wife becoming a pilot. Eleanor Roosevelt would later feature prominently in another aviation-related cause when she took a famous flight with a young Black aviator, helping establish the credentials of the "Tuskegee Airmen".
Elliott , the President of Purdue University. To avoid problems, Earhart would fly at 8, feet while the slower Pan Am flight would stay below 6, feet.
Johnson was asked to adapt the plan for 8, feet. The given schedule is for the 8,foot altitude, but Earhart may have used the slightly more efficient first schedule or some other schedule.
High numbers are rich mixtures; lower numbers are lean mixtures. Chater says the plane at Lae had 40 gallons of octane with the rest being 87 octane.
Lae did not have octane fuel. Manning would be able to work the radio from the copilot's seat or the cabin. Manning would have to be in the cabin to pay out the trailing wire antenna and to select the transmitting antennas.
If the vacuum tube is not powered, there would only be stray coupling. Also letter to Eugene Pallette dated June 9, , "And our radio was out of order — it would be, in such a jam.
Abbott letter dated August 3, and quoting A. Miss Earhart had been advised of the facilities and the Station's wave length prior to departure from Koepang.
Miss Earhart was advised to inspect fuse in event of further trouble. Itasca radio log for position 2 page 3 at 8: Their commander Capt Friedell made no note of "recent habitation" in his official summary.
Earhart had failed to find a minimum the transmitter direction during a test of the RDF at Lae Chater , and the plane also failed to find a minimum while listening to Itasca while near Howland.
Neither Earhart nor Noonan were skilled at Morse. Chater at Lae states, "Miss Earhart and Captain Noonan spent a considerable time in the radio office and as previously mentioned it was learned that neither of them could read morse at any speed but could only distinguish letters made individually slowly and repeated often; in that case their direction finding apparatus would be useless or misleading unless they were taking a bearing on a station using radiophone which could give the station position on voice.
We understand the Itasca was to do this but if the plane was unable to pick up the Itasca it is doubtful if the direction finder would be any use to her.
See Distance to Horizon Calculator at http: Nimitz , who allegedly told Goerner in March There is no identification on the backs. They appear to be typical snapshots and not the work of a professional.
They have faded giving them a sepia appearance. Voice of America , March 19, Equal Rights Amendment, Phase One: Amelia Earhart Program Transcript.
Archived May 25, , at the Wayback Machine. Penn State University Libraries. Archived June 11, , at the Wayback Machine.
Toronto Star , June 29, National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution. A pictorial peep into the past.
Southern Newspapers Ltd, Amelia Earhart Birthplace Museum. National Air and Space Museum. Amelia Earhart's Autogiro Adventures.
Purdue News , Lucie Historical Society, Inc. The Telegraph-Journal , May 19, Amelia Earhart; First Lady of the Sky.
Revolution in the sky: The New York Times , April 20, , p. Archived from the original on December 1, Retrieved November 30, Archived copy as title link Crash description: Miss Earhart corrected this tendency by throttling the left hand motor.
The airplane then began to swing to the left with increasing speed, characteristic of a ground-loop. It tilted outward, right wing low and for 50 or 60 feet was supported on the right wheel only.
The right-hand landing-gear suddenly collapsed under this excessive load followed by the left. The airplane spun sharply to the left sliding on its belly and amid a shower of sparks from the mat and came to rest headed about degrees from it's [ sic ] initial course.
Waitt Institute for Discovery. Archived from the original on December 15, Retrieved April 4, Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
Retrieved February 24, Archived PDF from the original on January 24, Retrieved November 22, Archived from the original on September 23, Archived from the original on November 2, Retrieved December 4, Archived copy as title link "The antenna input circuit of the Model 20 receivers was designed to accept connections from two separate antennas: Retrieved November 23, Retrieved November 25, Archived from the original on December 2, Archived PDF from the original on August 2,